Cataract is a condition of characterized by clouding of eye lens, results in blurring or cloudy vision. cataracts are the is the most common cause of blindness.
Types of cataract
- Nuclear sclerotic cataract: This cataract involves the Centre or nucleus of lens. It is age related and commonly occurring cataract. The Centre of the lens become hard and yellow or brown pigmentations are formed in lens.
- Cortical cataract: This cataract affects the outer layer (cortex) of lens. White wedge-shaped opacities are formed in the cortex portion of lens.
- Posterior subscapular cataract: This cataract occurs on the back surface of lens behind the capsule.
The lens in your eyes is clear it allows the light to pass through and fall on retina. Lens contains proteins arranged in precise manner, when the proteins in the lens rearrange or start clumping it results in clouding of lens.
- U V radiation
- Prolonged Corticosteroids therapy
- Radiation therapy
- Alcohol abuse
- High myopia (near sightedness)
- Harmonal therapy
- Blurry or foggy vision
- Faded colors
- Increased difficulty while driving at night due to glaring.
- Problems with glare during the day.
Cataract at initial stages can be managed with glasses. If the glasses failed to improve the you vision, you must undergo a cataract surgery.
This procedure is done by removing the cloudy natural lens and replace with artificial lens. Artificial lens are called intra ocular lens.
Step by step procedure
Cataract surgery is done as an outpatient procedure, usually done in local anesthesia. Phacoemulsification (uses ultrasonic instrument to emulsify the lens) is commonly performed cataract surgery.
Prior to surgery, the doctor will perform a complete physical examination, blood test and other investigations to make sure the patient is medically fit for surgery.
Local anesthesia is administered by to the patient so that the patient will not feel any pain. An incision is made on the cornea, the damaged lens (cataract) is removed by ultrasonic probe. The ultrasonic probe emulsifies the damaged lens and the emulsion is removed. the artificial lens is then placed in the capsule, which formerly contain lens.
Recovery after surgery
The patient can be discharged on the same day of surgery. Antibiotics and anti-inflammatory eyedrops are prescribed for 3 to 6 weeks. Eyes will be covered after surgery. Patients can resume the day after surgery. During the first week after surgery, it is generally recommended to keep his or her eye covered at all times, either with eyeglasses or an eye shield, to protect it from being bumped or rubbed. A small amount of pressure can easily open the incision, and protecting the eye prevents this.
Cataract surgery is very successful in restoring vision. 96% of patient undergoing the surgery has good improvement of vision.